Lüshun (Lǚshùn, 旅顺), also known as Port Arthur, Ryojun and Lüshunkou, is located around 40 km (24 mi) from Dalian at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. Surrounded by ocean on three sides, this strategically located seaport has a natural harbor and has played an important role in the region's history.
Lüshun has one main square surrounded by Japanese-style buildings. Most sights in the town are related to its military past and include Dongjiguan Shan (Dōngjīguān Shān, 东鸡冠山), the main battlefield of the Russo-Japanese War, where you can visit the Exhibition Hall of the Russo-Japanese War and learn the history behind the conflict. You can also see the remains of the North Fortress, which was built by the Russians then destroyed by the Japanese with a large quantity of dynamite.
The Lüshun Russian-Japanese Prison, (Lǚshùn Rì É Jiānyù, 旅顺日俄监狱), built in 1902 by the Russians and expanded in 1907 by the Japanese, can also be visited. Covering 26,000 sq m (279,862 sq ft), it's known as the "Auschwitz of the East," a name which gives an idea of the grisly happenings which took place within. Now used as a memorial, the prison houses 275 cell rooms which could accomodate over 2,000 prisoners, as well as torture chambers and gallows.
Baiyu Shan (Báiyù Shān, 白玉山) gives a bird’s eye view of Lüshun and the surrounding area from its 130 m (427 ft) summit. The 67 m (219 ft) Baiyushan Tower (Báiyù Shān Tǎ, 白玉山塔), built by the Japanese to commemorate their war dead, also sits atop the mountain.
There's also the Soviet Martyr's Cemetery (Sūjūn Lièshì Língyuán, 苏军烈士陵园), the largest cemetery in China for foreign-born nationals, the old Lüshun Railway Station (Lǚshùn Huǒchēzhàn, 旅顺火车站) and the Lüshun Museum (Lǚshùn Bówùguǎn, 旅顺博物馆) which provides a history of Liaoning and houses some mummies.
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